Knowledgebase : DNS

In Plesk, its quite simple to configure DNS settings.  This post will guide you on how to setup Google apps on Plesk panel 9.x.x

Lets get started! You must have an active account, meaning a registered domain .

Login to Control Panel https://control.DNN4Less.com/cp

Go to your domain. Click the "DNS Settings"

 

Before adding any records, delete all mail records first. See the image below.


 

After deleting click the "Update" button. See the image below.

Click "Add record"

From the below image you need to put all the MX records orderly on your Plesk DNS settings.
First add all the MX records one-by-one see image below:


Slelect Record Type "MX"
Leave "Enter Mail Domain" empty
" Enter Mail Exchanger" for the following Mail Exchangers

Put all the records and follow the MX Priority accordingly.

ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM
ALT1.ASPMX.L.GOOGL.COM
ALT2.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM
ASPMX2.GOOGLEMAIL.COM
ASPMX3.GOOGLEMAIL.COM
ASPMX4.GOOGLEMAIL.COM
ASPMX5.GOOGLEMAIL.COM

After adding click the "Update" button. See the image below.


Your DNS records will be look like this.

You are now done on MX records for Plesk now we need to modify some configuration on Plesk to tell Plesk that we dont want to use the built in mail.

On your Plesk dashboard click the Mail Accounts.

Click Mail Settings

Uncheck "Activate mail service on domain"

And save by clicking OK.

The most common types of DNS records are:

  • SOA record. Defined by provider and read-only. The SOA (start of authority) record is the most crucial record in a DNS entry. It conveys more information than all the other records combined. This record is called the start of authority because it denotes the DNS entry as the official source of information for its domain.
  • Address records (A) that map the name of a machine to its numeric IP address. In clearer terms, this record states the hostname and IP address of a certain machine. To "resolve" a hostname means to find its matching IP address.
  • IPv6 address records (AAAA) that map a hostname to its 128 bit IP address (IPv6 address). This record states that all requests for a hostname will be sent to a server with this IP address.

Note: IPv4 and IPv6 resource records can be freely mixed in the zone file if host is running dual (IPv4 and IPv6) addressing.

  • CNAME records allow a machine to be known by more than one hostname. There must always be an A record for the machine before aliases can be added. The host name of a machine that is stated in an A record is called the canonical, or official name of the machine. Other records should point to the canonical name
  • MX (Mail eXchanger) resource record identifies the mail server that is responsible for handling e-mails for a given domain name. When more than one MX record is entered for any single domain name that is using more than one mail server, the MX record can be prioritized with a preference number that indicates the order in which the mail servers should be used. This enables the use of primary and backup mail servers, which makes mail delivery more reliable. Please, keep in mind the following rules about MX records:
    • MX record must point to hosts defined by A records, not CNAMEs.
    • MX record cannot point to IP addresses.
    • If you create a single MX record, the priority doesn't matter If you create multiple MX records, your primary mail server must have the lowest preference.
  • Name Server records (NS) state the authoritative name servers for the given domain. There must be at least two NS records in every DNS zone.
  • SRV-records are used to specify the location of a service. They are recently were used in connection with different directory servers such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol). In addition, SRV records can be used for advanced load balancing and to specify specific ports for services - for example that a web-server is running on port 8080 instead of the usual port 80 (theoretical example - this is not yet supported by any major browsers). The "service location" is specified through a target, priority, weight, and port:
    • Target is the domain name of the server (referencing an A-record).
    • Priority is a preference number used when more servers are providing the same service (lower numbers are tried first).
    • Weight is used for advanced load balancing.
    • Port is the TCP/UDP port number on the server that provides this service.
  • TXT records - strictly informational, not functional. Used to provide up to 255 characters of free form text (quoted string). Provides the ability to associate some text with a host or other name.

The form for resource records input is organized as follows:

  • Enter a record subject into the Name field.
  • Enter a record time-to live in seconds into the TTL field.
  • Select a record type from the Type drop-down menu.
  • Enter priority (for MX or SRV record only) into the Priority field.
  • Enter the rest of a record in one string, in the same way as a record is entered in zone file into the Value field.
"There is a bug with the Windows Parallels Plesk Control Panel that can sometimes cause a domain to get added to the BIND service twice.  This would prevent the domain from being accessible and would show no DNS records even though the Blacknight Control Panel shows the domain as being added to Plesk successfully and though all the DNS settings in the Plesk Control Panel are correct."

 

Open a command prompt and go to the Plesk admin bin directory. Most likely: C:\Parallels\Plesk\admin\bin or C:\SWSoft\Plesk\admin\bin. E.g:
cd C:\Parallels\Plesk\admin\bin

 
Run the following command:
dbclient.exe --direct-sql "--sql=select id,name,status from dns_zone"


This will show you a list of all the domains in the BIND service on your server (i.e. domains added to the VPS). Any entry with a 2 beside it usually means an error. In this case there would be two entries for your_domain_name.com, one with a 2 beside it, as it was an incorrect duplicate entry.


What you need to do then is note down the ID number to the left of the entry for the duplicated domain name (the one with the 2 instead of 0 at the end) and then run the following commands:

dbclient.exe --direct-sql "--sql=delete from dns_recs where dns_zone_id=XX"
dbclient.exe --direct-sql "--sql=delete from dns_zone where id=XX"
where XX is the ID number. In this case it is 10.


Then finally run one last command to update BIND on the server:

DNSMng.exe update *

It is easy to setup and host a new website on your dedicated server through Plesk. You may be limited to the number of domains you can host, depending on the Plesk licence you have chosen.

 

Step 1
Log in to the Plesk control panel on your server.

Step 2
Click on Domains in the menu on the left.

 
 

Step 3
Click on the Create Domain icon.

 
 

Step 4
Enter the domain name you're adding in the Domain name text box, and make sure the WWW box is selected.

Select one of the IP addresses assigned to your server from the Assign IP address drop down menu.

Select Default Domain from the Use domain template settings drop down menu.

 
 

Step 5
Ensure the Mail and DNS boxes are selected, then choose the Web Site Hosting option from the Hosting type group.

 
 
Step 6
Choose a username to use to connect to the FTP for this domain and enter it in the Login text box. You also need to enter a password in the Password text box, and retype it in the Confirm password text box.
 
 
Click the Finish button when you are done. You will receive an on-screen message to let you know the domain has been added successfully.

1. Point your web browser to http://www.godaddy.com/.

Logging into your account
2. Log into your account by clicking on the "My Account" link located just below the menubar of the webpage. If you don't have an account yet, you will have to create one.
3. Enter your login name or customer number in the entry box labelled "Login Name or Customer Number".
4. Enter your password in the "Password" entry box located below the "Login Name" entry box.
5. Click on the "LOGIN" button located below the "Password" entry box.

Choosing a domain
6. Good! Now that you have logged into your account, select the "Manage Domains" menu item from the "Domain Names" drop down menu located on the left side of the webpage.
7. Below the "Domains Names" menu, select the domain for which you will be creating nameservers. If you do not have any domains, you will have to register one. For example, awebsite.com.

Creating the first nameserver
8. In the bottom right hand corner of the webpage (you may have to scroll down), expand the "Domain Host Summary" box by clicking on the "+" icon.
9. Click on the "Click here to see details or to modify" link below to begin creating the your nameservers.
10. On the right side of the webpage, enter the host name of your first name server in the entry box labelled "Host". The most common names are "ns1" or "dns1". For example, ns1.awebsite.com or dns1.awebsite.com.
11. Just below, add the IP of the nameserver in the "IP Address" entry boxes. For example, 192.168.0.1.
12. Now create the nameserver by clicking on "Add New Host".

Creating the second nameserver
13. You will need to create at least 2 nameservers. To create a second nameserver, repeat steps 10 to 12. Common practice dictates that the second nameserver will be named "ns2" or "dns2". For example, ns2.awebsite.com or dns2.awebsite.com.
14. By convention, the last part of the ip address of the second nameserver will be incremented by 1. For example, 192.168.1.1.
15. At this point you could add additional nameservers but it is not required. To save your nameservers, click on "Save Changes".

Final thoughts
16. Excellent! You have successfully created private nameservers at GoDaddy.com! Remember that your changes may take up to 72 hours to take effect (propagate).

If your domain name is registered in your control panel and is using DNN4Less Nameservers, you can access the advanced DNS section of your control panel. This will allow you to point different services on your domain name elsewhere.

 

Using your control panel, you can change the following records for your domain:

  • A Records: An A Record allows you to point the website of a domain name towards a specific IP address, allowing you to host a domains website in a different location than its other services.
  • CNAME record: Canonical Name records (CNAME for short), allow you to set up alias of your domain name to point towards another A record. This could be on your domain name, or on a separate domain name.

 

You cannot point a CNAME record towards an IP address.

 

  • X Records: Mail eXchange (MX) records allow you to point your email towards different mail servers. Adding multiple MX records allows you to send email to an alternate mail server if your primary server fails.
  • TXT Records: Text (TXT) records can be added to a domain name to add additional information for anyone looking up your domain. In recent times they have also been used to store data to be used by other protocols, such as SPF records.

  • AAAA Records: AAAA records work in the same way as A records, however, rather than pointing a website towards an IPv4 IP address (213.171.111.2 for example), they will point a website towards an IPv6 address (such as : c32:2214:ff2a)

  • Glue Records: These records are used if you are creating your own nameservers. By creating glue records, you will be registering these new nameservers with the global registry’s.

 

A Records

  • Host name: This is the sub domain name you would like to use for your A record. sales.domainname.com for example.

  • IP Address: Enter the IP address you would to point the new host name towards. 213.171.114.55 for example.

 

If you are pointing the A record towards your DNN4Less webserver, the IP address of your website can be found within your control panel. Don’t forget to update the root and the www record. Additional A records can be set up for other services.

 

CNAME Records

  • Host Name: This is the name of the alias you would like to set up. sales.domainname.com for example.
  • Points To: This is the A record that you would like to point your CNAME record to. signup.domainname.com for example.

 

MX Records

  • Points To: Enter the name of the mail server you would like to send email to. mail.ralphsdomain.com for example
If you have mailboxes set up with DNN4Less, our mailserver is mail.yourdomain.xxx
   
  • Priority: This sets the order in which servers will attempt to send email to your domain name. The lower the number the higher the priority. This will not send copies of your emails to multiple mail servers, and making the MX record a higher priority will not deliver email to the domain faster.

  • The addition of multiple MX records is designed purely to enable some fault tolerance within your email. If your main mailserver should fail for any reason, your emails will be directed to the next mail server on the list and so on.

 

TXT Records

  • Hostname: This is the name you would like to give to your Host record. This could be anything you like. If you are adding an SPF record, this should be the name of your domain name (without the www.)

  • Value: This is the content of your TXT record. This could be a comment, or an SPF record.

 

If you are using only DNN4Less Advanced or Exchange mailboxes to send email you can use “v=spf1 a ip4:213.171.216.0/24 mx ~all” as your SPF record, where;
  • V = Version of SPF
  • A = The A record of the domain is authorized to send mail
  • MX = the MX record (mail server) is authorized to send mail
  • Ipv4:213.171.216.0/24 approves our SMTP servers
  • ~all = Any email servers sending email from your domain name that are not listed ‘softfail’ – this means they will still be allowed , however we’re advising that it’s not an authorized server.  Changing this to –all will stop servers not listed from sending mail, provided the end mailbox checks SPF records associated with your domain name.
   

AAAA Records

  • Hostname: This is the name you would like to use for your A record. sales.domainname.com for example.
  • IP Address: Enter the IPv6 address you would like to point the new host name towards. 5fd4:0044:a3b1:526a for example.

Log in to the Network Solutions Account Manager at https://www.networksolutions.com/manage-it/index.jsp

  1. After logged into your NetworkSolutions account, click on View Domain Name List link on left.
  2. Click on the domain name you want to change.
  3. The Domain Details section displays different options. Select the radio button next to Custom DNS Setting and click on the Apply Change button. (Note: If radio button DNS Settings was already selected, then click on Edit DNS.)
  4. Next you will see Edit DNS page. On this page click on the Continue button (under the section Move DNS to a New Name Server). In the next page, after reading the confirmation warning, click on the Continue button.
  5. Enter the primary name server (NS1.DNN4Less.com) & secondary nameserver (NS2.DNN4Less.com) in the text boxes.
  6. When finished click on the Continue button, and then click on the Save DNS button
  7. You will see a confirmation page.  Please note that this can take up to 96 hours to be propagated all over the internet.

Please do the following to change your name servers at Tucows:

  1. Log into your Domain Management Interface, and click the Name Servers link.
  2. You will see a screen displaying the existing name servers.
  3. Enter the nameservers for the domain name into the Nameserver entry boxes.
  4. After the changes are made, click Save Configuration.

Please realize that it can take 24-72 hours for the domain name server information to be updated.

DNN4Less Name Servers:
NS1.DNN4Less.com
NS2.DNN4Less.com

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through Godaddy.

  1. Login to your GoDaddy Account using the Username and Password given to you by GoDaddy when you opened your account with them.
  2. In the left hand menu sidebar of the Account Overview window displayed to you click on Domain Manager below My Products.
  3. A list of your domains will be displayed.Click on the Domain Name for which you wish to change the Name Servers.
  4. A page will then be displayed showing all the details for that domain.Click on the NameServers icon on the top then click Setnameservers.
  5. A new pop-up window will be displayed. Check the radio button “I have specific nameservers for my domains” and enter/replace nameservers to NS1.DNN4Less.com and NS2.DNN4Less.com
  6. click OK.

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through 1and1.

  1. Login to your 1and1 admin panel >> select the package >> in the administration page, click on the link Manage Domains
  2. Click on DNS.
  3. Select the domain name from drop down list >> Click the Next button.
  4. Click on the edit button next to Name Server Setting.
  5. Select name server to My name server, enter Primary and Secondary name server fields, Click Ok.
    1. Enter Primary Name Server as NS1.DNN4Less.com
    2. Enter Secondary Name Server as NS2.DNN4Less.com
    3. Click OK
  6. You will see another message asking you to wait while the changes take effect. Please note that this can take up to 72 hours to be propagated all over the internet.

Please login to your EasyDNS account page and click the "whois" in the sidebar or domain administration when you are managing your domain name.

Click "edit" underneath the current nameservers to get blanks to add nameservers. Enter the two/three DNN4Less name server names in the nameserver fields in the top most blanks on the form and click "next" to confirm the changes.

Please realize that it can take 24-72 hours for the domain name server information to be updated.

 

DNN4Less Name Servers:
NS1.DNN4Less.com
NS2.DNN4Less.com

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through yahoo.

  1. Login to your domain control panel. Click on Domain Control Panel link.
  2. Click on Manage Advanced DNS settings link.
  3. Before you changes name server on yahoo.com, you need to unlock the domain. So scroll down and click on Unlock the Domain button.
  4. Click the Unlock Domain button in next 2 windows.
  5. After Unlocking the domain, let’s go back to Domain Control Panel by clicking on Domain Control Panel ink on the top to change the name server.
  6. Click on Manage Advanced DNS settings link.
  7. Scroll down and click on Change NameServers button.
  8. Enter Primary and Secondary name server fields NS1.DNN4Less.com & NS2.DNN4Less.com
  9. Click Submit.
  10. Any domain name servers change can take up to 72 hours to be propagated all over the internet. Next you need to re-lock the domain. Let’s go back to Domain Control Panel by clicking the domain control panel link.
  11. Click on Lock Domain button in next 2 windows.

 

This article will take you through the steps to change name servers ( DNS ) settings of your domain name registered with Enom.com.

  1. First you will need to visit www.enom.com and click login in the upper right hand corner of the screen. Enter in your username and password in the boxes shown.
  2. Click on Registered Domains link.
  3. Now click on the domain name you want to manage.
  4. Here you can see the current DNS setting for this domain. Click on Configure to change these setting.
  5. Enter the NS1.DNN4Less.com in Name Server 1 field.
  6. Enter the NS2.DNN4Less.com in Name Server 2 field.
  7. Then click save changes and you are DONE.

 

If you continually get DNS errors while trying to brows any site, but the same site on another computer on the same network is working fine. Then this problem is because of the DNS cache of the machine and you need to reload your DNS cache on that machine.

Following is the process to Clear/flush DNS cache

To Clear/flush DNS cache in Microsoft Windows.

Start >> Run >> type cmd

In command prompt, type 

C:\> ipconfig /flushdns

 

To Clear/flush the DNS cache in Linux, you need to restart the nscd daemon.
You need login into the shell of your machine and type

root@support [~]# cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
root@support [/etc/rc.d/init.d]# ./nscd restart
To Clear/flush the DNS cache in Mac OS.
In your terminal, type
For Tiger Mac

 

 

This article will explain how you can create an SPF record on your server using Plesk 11.

 

If you have not already done so you will need to generate an SPF record first this can be done at Microsoft's SPF record wizard

 

 

  1. Login to your Control Panel https://Control.DNN4Less.com/cp
  2. Select your domain
  3. Click on the Open in Control Panel link for the relevant domain name.
  4. Click on the Website & Domains tab.
  5. Click on the DNS settings link.
  6. Click on the Add Record icon.
  7. Select TXT From the drop down list.
  8. Leave the Domain name field blank and enter the generated SPF record in theTXT record field.
  9. Press the OK button to add the record.
  10. To apply the SPF record to the DNS zone press the Update button.

 

Plesk DNS named.conf Issue - Zone file and corresponding record in named.conf are missed for particular domain.

Symptoms:

Bind DNS server is used. There is no entry in named.conf for some domains, there also no zone file for it in the %plesk_bin%dns\var folder. If records are created manually they will be removed the next time Plesk updates named.conf.


The following tutorial will guide you through the cause and resolution for solving Plesk DNS issues with any domain accounts that are not resolving properly.
 
Cause:

When the DNS zone for a domain is managed via Plesk, the status for this domain in the dns_zone table of the database is temporarily set to a value of 2 (to lock it for any further changes) and is then set back to a value of 0 value when the changes are processed. If for some reason the process is interrupted (Plesk restarts for example) the status field value may not get changed back to 0 and stays as 2. Therefore any changes are no longer recorded until the status is changed back to 0.

Resolution: Editing the Plesk DNS zone database
 

Please note: to isolate database issues with Plesk and your own web services (MySQL or MS SQL), we recommend and setup Plesk to use MS Access databases. If you have setup Plesk to use MySQL or MS SQL databases you will need to use your preferred database viewer to find the necessary DNS zone table. You can view MS SQL instructions below.
  1. To view and edit the Plesk DNS zone database you will need to use an MS Access database viewer such as MDBPlus, and then open up the pleskmain.db located at:

    C:\Program Files (x86)\Parallels\Plesk\admin\db - Note: password is the same as Plesk admin login.
  2. Check dns_zone records for the problem domain's entry (domain.com for example):
    1. if there are multiple entries for the same domain; remove the entry that has the incorrect setting of 2;
    2. if there is only one entry for the domain, adjust the value in the "status" column from 2 back to 0.
  3. Save the database.
  4. Go back into Plesk and navigate to the DNS zone settings tab for the affected domain.
  5. Select "Restore Defaults" to rebuild the appropriate entries for the domain

You should now be able to resolve the domain correctly.


For Plesk installations setup to use MS SQL as the default Plesk database:

  1. Login via MSSQL Server Management Studio Express or your preferred MS SQL management tool.
  2. Expand the Plesk database.
  3. Expand the "tables" section.
  4. Scroll down to "dbo.dns_zone", right-click on this and choose "open table"
  5. Delete or modify the erroneous entry as in Step 2. above.

A glue record is the IP address of a name server held at the domain name registry.

Glue records are required when you wish to set the name servers of a domain name to a hostname under the domain name itself.

For example if you wished to set the name servers of example.com to ns1.example.com and ns2.example.com you would need to also provide the glue records (i.e. the IP addresses) for ns1.example.com and ns2.example.com.

If you did not provide the glue records for these name servers then your domain name would not work as anyone requiring DNS information for it would get stuck in a loop.

With the glue record in place the registry will hold the IP address and the loop will not occur.

When you visit a website on the Internet, the computer you use will find the address of the site using a system called DNS. If you are using your home computer to browse the internet, it will request each website address from your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

Dedicated and Virtual Servers are set up to search for this DNS information themselves. This is perfectly normal and is a commonly used feature for office or cloud networks.

There are two types of DNS queries that can be made to your server, which are as follows:

  • Recursive requests: With these requests your server will attempt to find the website in question in its local cache. If it cannot find an answer it will query other DNS servers on your behalf until it finds the address. It will then respond to the original request with the results from each server's query.
  • Iterative requests: With these requests the DNS server will attempt to find the website in question in its local cache. If it cannot find an answer it will not ask other DNS servers but will reply back to the original request with a single “I don’t know, but you could try asking this server” message.

Why are recursive DNS requests not recommended?

Servers that support this type of request are vulnerable to fake requests from a spoofed IP address (the victim of the attack), the spoofed IP address can get overwhelmed by the number of DNS results it receives and be unable to serve regular internet traffic. This is called an Amplifier attack because this method takes advantage of DNS servers to reflect the attack onto a target while also amplifying the volume of packets sent to the victim.

A consequence of this activity is that third party Network administrators who detect these requests may block your IP addresses.  Your server could even be placed upon DNS blacklists.

What happens if I turn off Recursive DNS lookups on my server?

If your server does not enable recursive DNS lookups, it will simply treat any such requests as an iterative DNS inquiry. It will remain as a DNS server, but will no longer be useful to attackers in part of an amplified attack on a victim.

How do I turn off Recursive DNS lookups?

Within the Plesk control panel:

Step 1: Log into your Plesk Control panel and click on Settings in the left hand menu.

Step 2: Click the button marked DNS Recursion Settings.

Step 3: Select Allow for Local requests only and click Set.

This will stop third parties from receiving recursive DNS requests from your server.

For Windows not using the Plesk control panel:

Open the command line and enter the following command:
dnscmd <Server name> /Config /NoRecursion 1

Replacing <Server name> with the name of your server.