Knowledgebase : General
Many blogging, content management, ecommerce and other packages use unfriendly URLs.

For example http://www.myblog.com/index.php?id=497

This may make it harder for website visitors to remember links to individual pages on your website and for search engines to find your content.

You can present friendlier, easier to remember, search engine friendly URLs to your website visitors by using mod_rewrite on our shared Linux servers.

Example with mod_rewrite: http://www.myblog.com/bee-keeping/too-much-honey

mod_rewrite with third-party software

If you use a relatively recent PHP blogging or content management system, it's likely that you'll be able start using friendly URLs straight away. Many other packages also have built-in support for friendly URLs with mod_rewrite.

Your software's documentation will show you how to start using mod_rewrite.

mod_rewrite with your own scripts

Our servers use Apache's standard mod_rewrite, enabling you to create applications that are user friendly, search engine ready and help to reduce malicious access to the inner workings of your code.

You can find further details on how to implement mod_rewrite at:

You can use these procedures to change the password for the Administrator account on the computer running Windows Server® 2008, Windows Server 2012.

Membership in Administrators, or equivalent, is the minimum required to perform this procedure.

  1. Log on to the computer using the Administrator account.

  2. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click User Accounts.

  3. In User Accounts, in Make changes to your user account, click Change your password.

  4. In Change your password, in Current Password, type your password.

  5. In New password, type a new password.

  6. In Confirm new password, retype the password.

  7. In Type a password hint, type a word or phrase that will remind you of your password or, optionally, leave this field blank.

  8. Click Change password.

 

To change the Administrator password in Windows Server 2012

  1. Log into your server via Remote Desktop.
  2. Press your Windows key and type Administrative Tools.
  3. Double click on Computer Management.
  4. Expand Local Users and Groups.
  5. Click on Users
  6. Right click on Administrator. Click on Set Password > Proceed.
  7. Type your new password in both fields then press OK.

Applies to Paralle's Plesk 10.x.x & 11.x.x

If you have a production website and want to improve it, it is advised to clone it and let your designers and programmers work on the copy of the site without interrupting the operations of your production site. Cloning is done by creating a copy of your site files and databases attached to it.

1. Prepare development environment.
You are advised to decide where you will host your development copy before copying site files and databases. Depending on your security and production isolation policy, you may choose to create a development copy of your site under the same hosting account, under a different hosting account on the same server if you have FTP access to its files, or on another server. If you decide to go with development site under the same account, add a site (domain or subdomain), or designate one that already exists. If you want to use another server or another account, make sure FTP access to your development site is correctly configured. In all cases, you may follow regular site creation procedures to prepare your development instance.

2. (Optional) Install APS applications

Install the desired site applications in your development environment in the same subdirectory as you have on your production site.

This step is needed if you set up your development environment under your account in the Panel and your production site has APS applications installed via the Panel (at the Applications tab). The reason is that copying site files will not register a new instance of APS application on your site copy. The application copy will still work, but it won't be listed among Installed Applications on the Panel Aplications tab, so you will not be able to change its settings from the Panel. In such a case, you will have to change all database connection settings manually in the application scripts. So perform this step to avoid such manual operations and take advantage of the APS management on your development instance.

3. Copy site files.
To copy your site content, go to the production subscription and select the "Website Copying" operation. You are advised to decide where you will host your development copy before going to that page and preparing the destination for the site content (see Step 1).

4. Copy databases.
In the production subscription, go to Websites & Domains tab > Databases. Click the name of the database with which your site works and select the "Make a Copy" operation. If your site works with more than one database, repeat the procedure for each database. If your production site produces a substantial load on the database server, it is advised to install a separate database instance for development purposes. Create and register the new databases with your development workspace. Then copy your production databases to the development server.

5. Change database connection settings in the scripts.
Be sure to change the database connection settings in the scripts in your development version. Remember that after the files are copied, they are still pointing at the production database. Make sure that your developers will work with the cloned instance instead.

6. (Optional) Complete APS applications setup.
Go to the Applications tab for your development site, locate the application in the list of installed applications, open its Settings screen and re-save the parameters. With this operation, the APS scripts should stop pointing at the production database and reconnect the application to the database copy.

This step is needed if your production site has APS apps installed via the Panel and you performed Step 2 of the current instruction.

Remote Desktop Connection is a program included with most Microsoft operating systems that allows you to make a connection to your server. This connection allows you to access your server directly from a remote location, as if you were sitting in front of the machine.  There are also a few programs for the Mac operating system as well.  Connecting to a Remote Desktop session is only available for Dedicated and Cloud solutions.  This option is NOT for shared accounts.

Windows:

  1. Click StartProgramsAccessoriesCommunicationsRemote Desktop 
  2. In the Computer field, type the IP address or hostname of the server for which you are 
  3. Click Connect. After a few moments the Log On to Windows dialog box will appear. 
  4. Enter your Remote Desktop user name and password and click OK. The Remote Desktop window will open and you will see the desktop of your server.

Note: To change your connection settings, (such as screen size, automatic logon information, and performance options), click Options before you connect.

When you are finished working on your server you will need to end the connection. 

 

MAC:

To connect to your server from a Mac OS, please see the following link which will guide you through the steps of connecting with CoRD.


CoRD is a program for Mac OS X that allows a user to connect to a Windows server via Remote Desktop.  it tends to be more reliable and is supported on the latest builds of Mac OS X whereas Microsoft Remote Desktop Client is not.  If you are connecting from a Windows machine, please see Connecting to Remote Desktop for Windows.

To connect to a Windows server with CoRD, follow the instructions below.

  1. Download CoRD from the CoRD website.
  2. Once installed, open the program. 
  3. Click the Servers icon and then click the + icon to add a server to the list. 
  4. Fill out the Address (domain or IP address of the server), username, and password.  Configure the other options accordingly.   Once done, close the dialog window.
  5. The server now appears in the server list.  Double-click the server name to log in. 

Many people have asked us if there is a significant difference between our new Cloud Shared Hosting plan and the traditional web hosting plans. We were also asked if Cloud Shared is better than the shared hosting.Well, the answers are a resounding “Yes.”

Cloud hosting is a web hosting service that is delivered from a network of connected servers. In other words you can say that cloud hosting, also known as clustered hosting,  is a group of servers that are all connected together to increase features. These connected servers are regarded as a ‘cloud’ or ‘cluster’ and those servers enable any users to utilize all the resources from all the servers on the cloud. On the whole, it is a group of instantly existing computing/hosting resources such as RAM memory, CPU and bandwidth pieced together, serving as a whole.

We would make comparison between cloud hosting and shared hosting. These terms have many things in common you should be able to judge how they are similar and what is the point of difference.

1. Cloud hosting and shared hosting plans are economic in nature. The biggest difference between two is that cloud hosting uses a cluster of servers called “clouds.” On the other hand, in shared hosting one server is used. In both cases, consumer pays according their usage. Shared hosting is generally cheaper than cloud hosting. But in cloud hosting you can get more options.

 

2. Cloud hosting permits you to use a wide range of technologies, file formats and web tools as clouds are formed from multiple servers. But on the other hand, you will not get this much of variety in shared hosting.

3. Cloud hosting and shared hosting handle traffic differently. With cloud hosting, traffic is easy to handle because network of servers are working for the consistency of your site. And in case of shared hosting, it might happen that you would not be able to control the traffic and web activities. The brighter side of this is that you can keep your cost control but drawback is that your site temporarily loses its functionality.

Existing DotNetNuke Shared Customers: Why Upgrade?

Besides the fact that the Cloud Shared Hosting takes advantage of cloud computing, it also distinguishes itself from other shared hosting by offering greater benefits, free services like website transfer and web application installation, and extended hosting functionality.

Cloud Shared Hosting plans are much more inexpensive. For starters, one can experience the benefits of cloud hosting with the Basic Plan, which only costs $15 per month. 

Cloud Shared Hosting plans also feature R1Soft Data Protection service that ensures security and reliability of your website data. They also include a free domain name registration (or domain transfer), and dedicated IP address if you sign up for at least 12 months.

If you’re an existing customer who owns an shared hosting plan, you can easily switch to cloud hosting by selecting your desired plan. You may also want to check out our Cloud Storage to extend your hosting space.

We recommend that you contact our customer support department if you have questions of DNN4Less' cloud products. We’re very excited to see how you will use our cloud hosting for your business competitive advantage.

This Guide describes the most important and frequently-used Parallels Business Automation - Standard working scenarios including initial settings for the system.

Scripts in languages such as PHP, Perl, Python, ASP and ASP.NET can present security problems. However, you can take a number of relatively simple steps to improve the security of the scripts you run.

The examples below are geared towards PHP. However, the principles apply to all web scripting.

 

You are responsible for what happens using your web space. We may suspend your account if an insecure script allows third-parties to misuse our servers.

 

Form to mail scripts

Form to mail scripts allow people to fill out a contact, or similar, form on your website. Whatever they enter is then emailed to you.

They are regularly used by spammers, who hijack your script to send unsolicited email. Through a few simple checks, you can ensure that your form to mail script is only used by your website and sends to the email address you choose.

Suggestion: You can prevent most illegitimate use of your form to mail scripts by checking the referrer string of the page calling your script, before processing it.

 
SQL injections

For example:

If you dynamically create SQL statements, using parameters passed from a web form or parameters in a URL, you might use something similar to the following pseudo-code:

SQL = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = '" + userName + "';"

 

You might expect the userName variable to be just that, a username.However, if the username comes from a script input, such as a form field, a malicious user could type the following:

a'; DROP TABLE users;

When the script is executed, the SQL statement would become:

SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'a'; DROP TABLE users;

 

When the SQL statement is run, it would drop the user table from the database. A mailicious user could do almost anything that your database user's permissions allow.

You should:

  • use your scripting language's escaping functionality

  • use SQL variables, rather than concatenating scripting variables to create the SQL statement

  • limit the database user's permissions to those needed by your application. 

Log in to the Network Solutions Account Manager at https://www.networksolutions.com/manage-it/index.jsp

  1. After logged into your NetworkSolutions account, click on View Domain Name List link on left.
  2. Click on the domain name you want to change.
  3. The Domain Details section displays different options. Select the radio button next to Custom DNS Setting and click on the Apply Change button. (Note: If radio button DNS Settings was already selected, then click on Edit DNS.)
  4. Next you will see Edit DNS page. On this page click on the Continue button (under the section Move DNS to a New Name Server). In the next page, after reading the confirmation warning, click on the Continue button.
  5. Enter the primary name server (NS1.DNN4Less.com) & secondary nameserver (NS2.DNN4Less.com) in the text boxes.
  6. When finished click on the Continue button, and then click on the Save DNS button
  7. You will see a confirmation page.  Please note that this can take up to 96 hours to be propagated all over the internet.

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through Godaddy.

  1. Login to your GoDaddy Account using the Username and Password given to you by GoDaddy when you opened your account with them.
  2. In the left hand menu sidebar of the Account Overview window displayed to you click on Domain Manager below My Products.
  3. A list of your domains will be displayed.Click on the Domain Name for which you wish to change the Name Servers.
  4. A page will then be displayed showing all the details for that domain.Click on the NameServers icon on the top then click Setnameservers.
  5. A new pop-up window will be displayed. Check the radio button “I have specific nameservers for my domains” and enter/replace nameservers to NS1.DNN4Less.com and NS2.DNN4Less.com
  6. click OK.

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through 1and1.

  1. Login to your 1and1 admin panel >> select the package >> in the administration page, click on the link Manage Domains
  2. Click on DNS.
  3. Select the domain name from drop down list >> Click the Next button.
  4. Click on the edit button next to Name Server Setting.
  5. Select name server to My name server, enter Primary and Secondary name server fields, Click Ok.
    1. Enter Primary Name Server as NS1.DNN4Less.com
    2. Enter Secondary Name Server as NS2.DNN4Less.com
    3. Click OK
  6. You will see another message asking you to wait while the changes take effect. Please note that this can take up to 72 hours to be propagated all over the internet.

This article will go through the steps on how to change name servers on your domain registered through yahoo.

  1. Login to your domain control panel. Click on Domain Control Panel link.
  2. Click on Manage Advanced DNS settings link.
  3. Before you changes name server on yahoo.com, you need to unlock the domain. So scroll down and click on Unlock the Domain button.
  4. Click the Unlock Domain button in next 2 windows.
  5. After Unlocking the domain, let’s go back to Domain Control Panel by clicking on Domain Control Panel ink on the top to change the name server.
  6. Click on Manage Advanced DNS settings link.
  7. Scroll down and click on Change NameServers button.
  8. Enter Primary and Secondary name server fields NS1.DNN4Less.com & NS2.DNN4Less.com
  9. Click Submit.
  10. Any domain name servers change can take up to 72 hours to be propagated all over the internet. Next you need to re-lock the domain. Let’s go back to Domain Control Panel by clicking the domain control panel link.
  11. Click on Lock Domain button in next 2 windows.

 

This article will take you through the steps to change name servers ( DNS ) settings of your domain name registered with Enom.com.

  1. First you will need to visit www.enom.com and click login in the upper right hand corner of the screen. Enter in your username and password in the boxes shown.
  2. Click on Registered Domains link.
  3. Now click on the domain name you want to manage.
  4. Here you can see the current DNS setting for this domain. Click on Configure to change these setting.
  5. Enter the NS1.DNN4Less.com in Name Server 1 field.
  6. Enter the NS2.DNN4Less.com in Name Server 2 field.
  7. Then click save changes and you are DONE.

 

If you continually get DNS errors while trying to brows any site, but the same site on another computer on the same network is working fine. Then this problem is because of the DNS cache of the machine and you need to reload your DNS cache on that machine.

Following is the process to Clear/flush DNS cache

To Clear/flush DNS cache in Microsoft Windows.

Start >> Run >> type cmd

In command prompt, type 

C:\> ipconfig /flushdns

 

To Clear/flush the DNS cache in Linux, you need to restart the nscd daemon.
You need login into the shell of your machine and type

root@support [~]# cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
root@support [/etc/rc.d/init.d]# ./nscd restart
To Clear/flush the DNS cache in Mac OS.
In your terminal, type
For Tiger Mac

 

If you have a production website and are planning major site changes, consider setting up a staging site — a separate location on the server where you can conveniently update and test a copy of the site before putting it into production.

We recommend that you work with a staging site in the following way:

  1. Decide where you want to host the development copy and prepare the development environment. You can choose to host it in the same webspace, in a separate webspace on the same server, or upload it to an FTP account on another server.

    If you choose the same webspace, then you first need to set up a new website by adding a domain or a subdomain.

  2. (Optional step.) If you set up your development environment under your account in the Panel and your production site has APS applications installed via the Panel (at the Applicationstab), install the desired site applications in your development environment in the same subdirectory as you have on your production site. This step is optional; however, it will help you avoid changing manually database connection settings in the application scripts.
  3. Make a copy of the website and place it in the staging environment.
  4. Make copies of the databases used by the site and deploy them in the staging environment.
  5. Change database connection settings in the scripts to point at the databases in the staging environment.
  6. (Optional step.) Complete APS applications setup. Go to the Applications tab for your development site, locate the application in the list of installed applications, open its Settingsscreen and re-save the parameters. With this operation, the APS scripts should stop pointing at the production database and reconnect the application to the database copy. This step is needed if your production site has APS apps installed via the Panel and you performed Step 2 of the current instruction.
  7. Make the required changes to the site copy in the staging environment, and test them to make sure everything works as intended.
  8. Publish the updated site. This is done by pointing the document root of the production site to the staging site location.

To set up a site for staging purposes:

  1. Go to the Websites & Domains tab.
  2. Click either Add New Domain or Add New Subdomain.

    We recommend that you use a subdomain for staging purposes.

  3. Proceed as described in Adding More Websites or Adding Subdomains.

If you do not want your staging site to be accessible to the Internet users, do not register the newly added domain or subdomain name with a domain name registrar, or use an .htaccessfile (on Linux hosting) to restrict access to it.

To make a copy of website files:

  1. Go to the Websites & Domains tab.
  2. Click Website Copying (in the Advanced Operations group).
  3. If you have several websites, select the one you need and click Manage.
  4. To copy website files to the document root of an existing site:
    1. Select the option Website in the Panel.
    2. Select the destination site from the Site name menu.
    3. Specify what to do with the files that might already be present in the destination directory.
  5. To copy website files to an FTP account on this or another server:
    1. Select the option FTP storage.
    2. Specify the server's host name and credentials for connecting to the FTP account.
    3. In the FTP connection method field, leave the Active mode option selected. If the Panel fails to connect to the external FTP account, select the Passive mode option here.
  6. Click OK.

If the site uses scripts that work with a database, copy the database to the staging environment:

  • If the database is hosted on the same server managed by Panel 10, use the procedure below to copy it.
  • If the database is hosted on a server which is not managed by Panel 10, use the mysqldump utility to export the database, move the resulting data dump file to the staging environment and deploy it there. Modify the site's scripts in the staging environment so that they connect to the copied database.

To make a copy of a database from the Panel-managed server:

  1. Go to the Websites & Domains tab > Databases > database name.
  2. Click Make a Copy.
  3. Specify the following:
    • Destination database server. You can select the same Panel-managed database server, or a database server located elsewhere. For an external database server, specify the host name or IP address, and access credentials: the username and password of a database management system user authorized to create new databases and database tables.
    • Destination database. You can choose to create a new database or copy the data to an existing database.
    • Create a full copy. Leave this option selected to copy the database structure and all data.
  4. Click OK.

    The copy of the database will be deployed on the destination server.

  5. Modify the site's scripts in the staging environment so that they connect to the copied database.

When the site copy in the staging environment is updated and ready to go live, publish it as described in the following steps.

To publish the updated site to the production environment:

  1. Go to the Websites & Domains tab.
  2. In the list of domain names, locate the address of your production site and click it.
  3. In the Document root box, specify the document root directory of the staging site.
  4. Click OK.

This will make the updated site copy in the staging site location accessible to visitors of your production site address.

If you can browse your webiste without "WWW" (yourdomain.xxx) and cannot browse with "WWW" (www.yourdomain.xxx), please ask your domain registrar to resset your Domain's Zone File.

 

This should solve the issue.

In order to investigate issues, provide setup guidance or to troubleshoot reported problems, DNN4Less support technicians may require access to any one of your local machine, web server and database.

We understand that this kind of access information is sensitive, and are best kept to a need-to-know basis. With this in mind, we will only require access to your systems where it is absolutely necessary.

We have taken every precaution to ensure that our systems which store access information are highly secure. However, there are additional precautions that we advise our customers take before providing us with access credentials.

In all cases where we require access to your systems, we will make it clear to you exactly what access is needed, and why.

Summary of this article

  1. When providing a technician with access to one of your systems, it is always best to change the password of HOST/ADMIN/ADMINISTRATOR account being provided to a random password temporarily, while the issue is being traced by us.
  2. Once your issue has been resolved, you should change the passwords of all provided accounts as soon as possible.
  3. In all issues that require access to your systems, the technician will make it clear to you exactly what access he or she needs to, and why.

Access to your systems

Depending on the task which needs to be performed, a DNN4Less technician may require access to one of your systems. Where the system supports user account based access, we strongly advise that you change the password of HOST/ADMIN/ADMINISTRATOR account being provided to a random password for DNN4Less support for the duration of the issue, with only the essential permissions to your systems.

  1. Change the existing password of HOST/ADMIN/ADMINISTRATOR account with a random and complex password.
  2. Once your issue has been resolved, you should change its password as soon as possible.

Please note that we may require access to specific user accounts (such as your own) in order to diagnose user or account-specific problems. In this case, we advise that you change the account's password before providing us with the credentials, and changing your password again after the issue has been resolved.

Access to a Server Administrator account

More often than not, we will require access to an administrator account on your DNN4Less Virtual rivate Server or Dedicated Server. Follow the steps outlined in the Access to your systems section of this article.

Access to an FTP account

In order to repair or trace problems, DNN4Less support may require access to the files of your webites. Follow the steps outlined in the Access to your systems section of this article.

Make sure that this account is a user-level account that has access to the directory in which your website is installed, unless our technician specifically requests an unrestricted access account (see below).

'Root' (unrestricted access) to your server

If a technician asks for 'root access' to your server (a root account with unrestricted permissions), please do not be alarmed. Only in the rarest of cases will we ask for such access - i.e. when our ability to diagnose and resolve your issue absolutely requires it (such as generating or monitoring server logs, or making server configuration changes).

When providing us with root/unrestricted access to your systems, it is imperative that you follow the temporary account creation steps outlined in the Access to your systems section of this article.

Access to other systems

A DNN4Less technician may require access to another of your systems; such as to a POP3 or IMAP e-mail account when diagnosing e-mail problems, or direct access to your database in order to perform repairs.

When providing access to your other systems, we advise you follow the procedures described in the Access to your systems section of this article.

Firewalls and IP based authentication

If your systems use or are protected by IP address authentication (e.g. if you have a firewall), please let us know and we will provide you with the list of our office IP addresses to allow through.

Due to company network policy, I am unable to provide access

If this is the case, please inform us and we will discuss the options with you (such as shared and supervised remote control).

If you need to redirect your visitors to a new page, this HTML redirect code may be just what you're looking for. 

When designing a web site, many times you must change the location of a web page . However, if the page is popular,
your visitors may have already linked to it. In addition, the Search Engines have most-likely already indexed the page. 

For this reason, it is best to replace your page with a new page that will redirect your visitors to the new page. This
provides a great way to provide your visitors with the information they were looking for and prevent you from losing
your traffic. However, when using this HTML redirect code, 

please ensure that you don't use it to trick the Search Engines, as this could get your website banned.
It is always best to work hard and learn quality ways in which to drive traffic to your web site.

Place the following HTML redirect code between the <HEAD> and </HEAD> tags of your HTML code.


<meta HTTP-EQUIV="REFRESH" content="0; url=http://www.yourdomain.com/index.html">

 

The above HTML redirect code will redirect your visitors to another web page instantly. The content="0; may be
changed to
the number of seconds you want the browser to wait before redirecting.


Source:http://www.web-source.net/html_redirect.htm

Overview

Creating and using strong passwords is an important part of your server/website security.

With Plesk 11, a strong password is required with your initial setup. These passwords are at least 8 characters long. Along with upper and lower-case characters, they require multiple occurrences of digits and special symbols. Such passwords provide strong protection from brute-force attacks.

Things to include

  1. At least eight characters.
  2. One or more of each of the following:
    • lower-case letter
    • upper-case letter
    • number
    • punctuation mark
  3. Lookalike characters to protect against password glimpses. Examples:
    • O as in Oscar and the number 0.
    • Lower-case l and upper-case I.
    • The letter S and the $ sign.

Things to avoid

  1. Words you can find in the dictionary.
  2. Passwords shown as "example strong passwords."
  3. Personal information, such as names and birth dates.
  4. Keyboard patterns, like qwerty or 12345. Particularly avoid sequences of numbers in order.
  5. Common acronyms.
  6. All one type of character - such as all numbers, all upper-case letters, all lower-case letters, etc.
  7. Repeating characters, such as mmmm3333.
  8. The same password you use for another application.

Memorable password tips

While passwords that are easy for you to remember are also less secure than a completely random password, following these tips can help you find the right balance between convenience for you and difficulty for hackers.

  1. Create a unique acronym for a sentence or phrase you like.
  2. Include phonetic replacements, such as 'Luv 2 Laf' for 'Love to Laugh.'
  3. Jumble together some pronounceable syllables, such as 'iv,mockRek9.'

Keep your password secret

  1. Never tell your password to anyone (this includes significant others, roommates, coworkers, etc.). If you need to grant someone access to your server, set up a separate username and password for that person.
  2. Never write your password down, especially not anywhere near your computer.
  3. Do not store your password in a plain text file on your computer.
  4. Never send your password over an unecrypted connection - including unencrypted email.
  5. Periodically test your current password.
  6. Update your password every six months.

If you visit a website frequently, your web browser stores elements of the web page  in a cache so that they do not have to be downloaded again each time you visit, making your browsing faster. These elements might include photographs, pages you have already viewed, or style sheets. In some cases, when the website is changed, you may not be able to view the changes because you are actually viewing the cache. There are two ways to solve this problem: a hard refresh, which bypasses the cache and loads the actual page as it is stored on the server , and clearing your cache, which is something you should do periodically anyway.

To refresh a website normally, you hit the refresh button, or the F5 key, or press the command key for your operating system, such as the Apple key or the Control key, and the letter R. To hard refresh, the command or control key is held down while clicking on the refresh button or pressing F5. Alternatively, the user can hold down the shift key, the command/control key, and the letter R. A hard refresh will bypass any cached files and display the web page as it currently appears on the server.

If you are viewing a web page that looks odd or has glitches, a hard refresh may be necessary. This is common with websites  that are constantly being updated, like e-mail and news sites. Occasionally, the rapid updates confuse the browser, which reverts to a cached version of the page. If a site looks funny to you, performing a hard refresh may help to clear up the problem. Hard refresh is also very useful for web designers who want to make sure that they are viewing the most recent version of their work.

In the options menu for your web browser, there is usually a tab for dealing with the cache. You can set the size of the cache and also clear it out. Clearing the cache will remove all of the older saved versions of websites you visit, which means that the entire page will have to be freshly downloaded when you visit it. Clearing the cache is more time consuming than doing a hard refresh, and only needs to be done periodically, but can be beneficial if you are having difficulty with your browser.

 

In storage networking terminology, a Storage Area Network (SAN) is a high-speed subnetwork of shared storage devices. A storage  device is a machine that contains nothing but a disk or disks for storing data.

A SAN's architecture works in a way that makes all storage devices available to all servers on a LAN or WAN. As more storage devices are added to a SAN, they too will be accessible from any server in the larger network. In this case, the server merely acts as a pathway between the end user and the stored data.

Because stored data does not reside directly on any of a network's servers, server power is utilized for business applications, and network capacity is released to the end user.

When you set up your webhosting, we will automatically create some directories within your webspace for you.

  • httpdocs

  • logfiles

After connecting to your web space with an FTP program you will be automatically logged into the httpdocs folder. You can naviage up a level to see the other directories we have created.

 

  • httpdocs: All your web content should be stored in this directory, or a sub-directory of this. Your home page should be within this directory and should be named index or default. Within the httpdocs folder, you will see that another subdirectory has been created.

  • cgi-bin: The cgi-bin directory is for files that require execute permissions. For example Perl or Python scripts, or compiled CGI. HTML and PHP files will not work if placed in this directory.

  • logfiles: The logfiles directory contains the raw logfiles for your domain. This is where any monitoring software such as Matrixstats will get the information needed to show you website statistics. You should not upload any files to this directory.

 

 

FTP software will allow you to upload files in different formats. Perl and Python scripts should be uploaded in ASCII, while compiled CGI should be uploaded in binary.

 

What to Call your Home Page

When someone visits a folder on your website, the webserver will look for the default document within your httpdocs folder. Our webservers are configured to look for a file called index or default, to display as your home page.

 

While it is good practice to have just one default file within your htdocs folder, if you have more than one, the server will display whichever is highest on its precedence list. The order that it chooses a default page is slightly different, depending on the type of server you are using.

 

Below is a list of default files, with the highest priority at the top.

  • default.html

  • default.asp

  • index.htm

  • index.html

  • index.php

  • index.pl

  • default.aspx

This article explains the reasons why you might get the following message from the web server:

"You are not Authorized to View this Page"

or

"HTTP Error 403 - Forbidden; Directory Listing Denied"

The principle reasons for this message are:

There is no default page for the server to display.

  • Use FTP to access your website and check that a default web page exists.A list of default web pages is available in our article Where do I upload my website files?

Ideally you should only have one default document. If you have more than one, the web server will choose the first one in the list and ignore the others.

The page you have requested does not exist

  • Use FTP to access your website and check that the web page exists.A list of default web pages is available in our article Where do I upload my website files?